Alpha Duplication Ltd, Tel 0800 731 7042 High Wycombe, London, Castleford, Leeds, Dublin

glossary

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4:3
Pronounced "four-by-three," this is a videographic aspect ratio sometimes referred to as standard aspect ratio, as opposed to, widescreen aspect ratio which is 16:9. The 4:3 ratio is derived from the ratio of the width by the height of standard CRT monitors.

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16:9
Pronounced "sixteen-by-nine," this is a videographic aspect ratio sometimes referred to as widescreen aspect ratio, as opposed to, standard aspect ratio which is 4:3. The 16:9 ratio was a compromise from the 35mm film settings between the United States and the United Kingdom.
Alpha Duplication : Quick TipDid you know that we can work with a number of video formats in the 16:9 aspect ratio for your next DVD project? Get in touch with us to learn how we can make your DVD dreams a reality!

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AIFF
Audio Interchange File Format (sometimes known as Apple Interchange File Format) was created by Apple Macintosh for professional-level audio. A Lossless file format, AIFF files are non-compressed, and contain the full frequency audio spectrum perfect for CD-DA (Audio CDs). One minute of AIFF audio at the CD Red Book standard of 16 bit / 44.1 kHz, is about 10MB in size, much more than its audio counterpart, the mp3, which uses a Lossy compression.
Alpha Duplication : Quick TipDid you know that you can supply us your AIFF files and track listing, and we can create your master here? We'll even send you a copy just to make sure you like the way it sounds and plays before duplication or replication.

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ALPHA: Protect-R
Protect-R is a very strong copy-protection system that we can add to any Video DVD in for duplication. Protect-R works by surrounding the video files with a small (less that 1MB) "wrapper" that confuses DVD burning and ripping software, making the programs see a blank disc. This "wrapper" is transparent to all set-top and computer DVD players, so playability is unaffected. By not encrypting the video files in any way, ALPHA: Protect-R ensures perfect playback.
Alpha Duplication : Quick TipDid you know that DVD piracy accounted for a £450 million loss in profits in 2005? Computers are only getting better, so protect your disc today! Learn more about ALPHA: Protect-R. Is your disc not a DVD Video? No problem. Try SecuROM.

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Authoring
Authoring is the process of creating a video DVD or Blu-ray that can be played in a set-top DVD player. During the Authoring process, MPEG-2 encoded video and audio can be added to rasterised artwork (usually Adobe Photoshop .psd file.) Inside the artwork, special naming protocols can be used to name each layer to create interactive menu buttons with highlights that can be linked with the video.
Alpha Duplication : Quick TipDid you know that Alpha Duplication can add a menu to your DVD project? We can use provided artwork, or create something to match your disc art or the theme of the movie. Contact us today to find out more!

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AVI
Audio Video Interleave, or AVI, is an audio/video Container Format first introduced by Microsoft. AVI can hold a number of audio and video CODECs, but some of the more common are MPEG and DV.
Alpha Duplication : Quick TipDid you know that our DVD Authoring Suite can take your raw AVI footage and convert it into a Video DVD or CD? Call us now to find out more!

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Blu-Ray™
Blu-Ray is a high definition optical disc format that can be used for very high quality audio and video, along with a portable storage solution. Blu-Ray gets its name from the blue-violet laser that is used to read and write the disc. This technology has increased the the storage capacity of 12 cm discs by a multiple of 5. A standard, single-sided Blu-Ray disc can hold up to 25 GB and a dual-layer disc can hold 50 GB. Blu-Ray is the latest in the optical disc technology after DVDs and CDs.
Alpha Duplication : Quick TipDid you know that Alpha Duplication is on the cutting edge and is happy to take your Blu-Ray disc orders? Contact one of our Sales Team members today to find out more.

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CD
Compact Disc, or CD, is an optical storage medium composed of 1.2mm of polycarbonate plastic, and a very thin layer of aluminum, covered in a protective lacquer. Data capacities differ depending on size. Please visit our CD Duplication page to learn more.

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CD-DA
Compact Disc Digital Audio & CD-DA are more commonly known as an Audio CD. Audio CDs follow Red Book standards to maintain compatibility among all CD players. Some basic standards state that: 74 minutes is the maximum playing time, the minimum track length is 4 seconds and the maximum number of tracks is 99. ISRC codes should be included, but they're not required.

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CD-R
Compact Disc-Recordable, or CD-R is what most people know as just a CD. It's a "Write-Once, Read-Many" (WORM) style of media, and discs from Alpha Duplication are WORM style of CDs. CD-R is the name we give to discs that are to be Duplicated here at Alpha. Standard CD-Rs are 12cm in diameter and can hold 700 MB of data, or in CD-DAs, 74 minutes of audio.
Alpha Duplication : Quick TipDid you know that Alpha Duplication can provide duplicated CD-Rs in a variety of prints, formats and sizes such as the 8cm or the Business Card CD-R? Visit the CD Duplication page to find out more!

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CD-ROM
Compact Disc, Read-Only Media, or CD-ROM is a disc that can be accessed by a computer. CD-ROMs were created by adapting the technology of Audio CDs, therefore have the same storage capacities of 700 MBs. At Alpha Duplication, any CDs that are headed for Replication are given the title of CD-ROM.

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CMYK
CMYK stands for Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and Key/blacK and is a subtractive colour model, used in colour printing. The CMYK model is called subtractive because inks subtract (ie. absorb) brightness from the base colour. When printing a full colour image, the image is separated into the four colours and then each is printed individually on top of each other to build the image. It is also known as four colour process or full colour printing.

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CODEC
Short for Compression/Decompression, CODEC is a program that converts one format of digital media to another and come in two formats: Lossy and Lossless. Sound, artwork and video files are classic examples that use CODECs. Sometimes files will use a combination of CODECs, one for video and one for audio for example. Formats that hold 2 or more types of CODECs are called Container Formats. See also mpeg-1, mpeg-2, aiff, wav, mp3

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CCS
Content Scrambling System is a copy-protection system for replicated DVD video. Due to the way the disc is encoded, masters must be provided on DLT tape, rather than DVD-R
Alpha Duplication : Quick TipAre you choosing to duplicate rather than replicate, but still want to copy-protect your DVD Video? Choose ALPHA: Protect-R

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Digital Printing
A number of printing techniques that do not require films, screens or plates. As such, there are minimal setup costs, making it ideal for small quantities. The most common examples of digital printing are high-end inkjet or thermal.
Alpha Duplication : Quick TipDid you know that even if you have a small order with us, you can still get the quality of CMYK printing? Digital printing at Alpha is your answer!

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DDP
Disc Description Protocol, or DDP, is a file format used for the transfer of mastered CD Audio on CD-DAs, or DVD-9s. This format encapsulates the audio data and the associated meta-data, such as the ISRC, CD Text or copy-protection.

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Duplication
The method of recording data onto a CD-R or DVD-R. It is also known as burning, as the data is burnt to the blank media by pulsing a laser onto a dyed layer within the disc, changing its reflective properties. As the data for each disc is recorded individually, it is ideal for shorter runs or where flexibility is required, but becomes expensive on higher volumes.
Alpha Duplication : Quick TipDid you know that in 2007 we duplicated over 4 million discs in-house? We are also the premier printer of recordable discs in the UK. We offer Screen, Litho, Digital and Thermal disc printing on all duplicated discs. Click here to learn more about Duplication at Alpha.

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DV Cam / Mini-DV Cam
Digital Video, (DV) is the name given to the tape format, one of the industry standards, of video production. The tapes come in 2 sizes, DV Cam ("L-Size" 4.6hrs of recording time) and Mini-DV Cam ("S-Size" 60 - 90 minutes) Both tapes have built-in memory chips that take note of where the tape is when the record button is turned off, which allows editors to jump to "scenes" in the footage. Most of the time, footage is recorded using the MPEG-2 format which is ideal for authoring to DVD.
Alpha Duplication : Quick TipDid you know that we can author your next CD or DVD project using your DV or Mini-DV Cam tapes? Just provide us with the tapes, any artwork for DVD menu screens (if necessary) and we'll do the rest. Contact our Sales team today to learn more!

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FPS
Frames per second, or fps, is a term used when talking about motion video. Video is made up of individual pictures, also known as frames or cells, and if sequential frames are changed quick enough, our eyes and brain are tricked into thinking we're seeing motion video, or motion pictures as movies have been called. Cinematic movies are shown at 24 fps, while the PAL TV/Video standard is 25 fps. NTSC has a few main frame rates: 30 fps, 29.97 drop and 29.97 non-drop.

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FTP
File Transfer Protocol, or FTP, is the common way to transfer large files such as artwork, or master files to-and-from Alpha Duplication. FTP at Alpha Duplication require two things: 1. A username and password, provided by our FTP Administrator, to login to the system. 2. An FTP Client software is also needed to ensure the delivery of the files. A free FTP Client software can be downloaded at Filezilla.

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Glass Master
A glass disc that is used as a master during Replication for the stampers from which CDs and DVDs are eventually pressed. It is much larger than the final discs and are created in a sealed environment to ensure that it is free of contaminants.

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ISRC
International Standard Recording Code, or ISRC, are codes that are used to uniquely identify sound and video recordings. ISRC codes are 12 characters long and include identifiers for the country of recording, the registrant's label, year, and a unique song or video code. For example: GB-ZUY-08-00311
Alpha Duplication : Quick TipDid you know that if your audio tracks have been assigned ISRC codes, but your audio master didn't have them burnt in, we can insert them and even send you a copy to make sure everything still sounds good! Contact Us now for more information.

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JPEG
Joint Photographic Expert Group, or JPEG, is a Lossy compression method for digital pictures, therefore, you're trading quality for smaller file size. JPEG is also used as a format to describe rasterised digital pictures. JPEG is best suited for photographs or realistic scenes with life-like variations of colour and tone. Line drawings and text formatting are best saved in TIFF format.

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Litho Disc Printing
The most commonly used process for printing large volumes of four colour. Offset lithography creates an image by using a metal plate containing a negative of the image. The image is made from a dye that repels ink. The ink is then applied to the positive images, and from there to the disc. As the ink is not being pushed through a screen, it can be used to print to a higher resolution, making the printing of fine detail or light areas possible.
Alpha Duplication : Quick TipDid you know that Alpha Duplication just added "Line:2", a second in-house Litho printer which has doubled our print capacity? Learn more about Litho Printing.

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Lossless
A non-compressed file format, or a type of digital compression using CODECs that allows full extraction of the original data, as opposed to Lossy compression which uses a destructive compression algorithm that saves files size, but doesn't allow for full data extraction. Common Lossless file types are aiff, wav, zip, gif, png, and tiff.

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Lossy
A type of digital compression using CODECs to decrease file size, but ultimately decreasing quality. Files cannot be uncompressed to the exact original data, as is the case Lossless compression. Audio, video and still images very commonly have some type of Lossy compression applied. Some common files types that use Lossy compression are mp3, mpeg-1 & mpeg-2, and jpeg.

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Mirror Band
The area on the inside of a CD or DVD that is metalised but does not hold data.

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mp3
MP3 is a lossy compression format for audio files. Part of the MPEG-1, Audio Layer 3 CODEC, the mp3 has become the standard for audio compression for portable music players. The compression algorithm greatly reduces files size by only keeping parts of the audio that can be perceived.

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NTSC
National Television System Committee, or NTSC, is the format for video in the United States, Canada, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan and selected countries in South America. The video dimensions are generally 720 x 480 and the frame rate (FPS) is generally 30, 29.97 drop frame, or 29.97 non-drop frame. This rate stems from the electrical systems in these countries which is 60Hz, so for 2 cycles of electricity, one frame is drawn, with an upper and lower field.
Alpha Duplication : Quick TipDid you know that Alpha Duplication can work with your NTSC video, or have your NTSC video converted to PAL? Contact Us now to find out more!

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Pantone™ Matching System
The industry-standard colour matching system for spot colours as defined by Pantone Inc. This is the most common way of defining the colour of company logos and other corporate branding. It is also a good way of standardising colour over several components. Monitors and desktop printers only provide an approximation of colour, which can vary considerably, depending their calibration. By using a palette of numbered colours, defined in a swatch book, the Pantone System provides an accurate and independent way of matching colours. Several types of Pantone book are available, Picture of Pantone book including metallic and fluorescent ranges, as well as the standard colour range. Most graphics software packages support the use of Pantone colours. PMS colours are by definition printed as spot colours. When these are printed, inks are mixed to a formula and cross-checked against a Pantone swatch. Pantone colours can be used as a reference for CMYK work, but is not as accurate as using spot colours.

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PAL
Phase Alternating Line, or PAL, is the video format for a large number of countries including the United Kingdom, Brazil, Argentina, China and Australasia. The video dimensions are generally 720 x 576 and the frame rate (FPS) for PAL video is 25 frames per second and is based on the AC power from the outlets. This rate stems from the electrical systems in these countries which is 50Hz, so for 2 cycles of electricity, one frame is drawn, with an upper and lower field.

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Rasterised
Rasterisation is the computer-aided process of turning vector artwork into pixelated artwork. Once rasterised, the artwork has a resolution, usually measured in dots-per-inch (DPI)

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Region Code
Region Codes are digital meta information that is encoded to commercial DVD Video discs to restrict where in the world the disc can be played back. The main reason for Region Codes is to protect a region's economy. For example, some countries can release a DVD for a lower price because of high supply, so to ensure that other economies don't suffer, the discs are unplayable in all but the region that they're sold.

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Replication
The manufacturing process used in optical disc production is known as replication. The process involves the creation of a glass master from the original data. From this a nickel stamper is created. A polycarbonate is then injection-moulded to the image of the stamper. These are then metallised and lacquered to form the finished disc. Being a mass-production process, it is particularly suitable for larger volumes of discs. Each disc is created from the same stamper ensuring that all the discs are identical, reducing any risk of error or non-compatibility.
Alpha Duplication : Quick TipDid you know that if you place an order for replicated discs from Alpha Duplication, you'll receive your commercial grade product in 10 days? Click here to learn about more about CD & DVD Replication at Alpha.

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RGB
RGB stands for Red, Green, Blue and is an additive colour model used by monitors, digital cameras and scanners. This is different to the CMYK model as it deals with light rather than solid matter and as such is an unsuitable colour model for print work. RGB images should be converted to CMYK before printing.

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SECAM
Séquentiel couleur à mémoire, French for "Sequential Colour with Memory," is the video format first used in France and has been adopted by many countries in Africa and Asia, but because of the upgrading of power systems, and the sharing of video, many countries have started the process of migrating to the PAL video format. Many countries in the European Union have made, or will be making, the switch.

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SecuROM Protection
The most effective copy protection system for CD-ROM and DVD-ROM. It requires an executable file to protect. When someone attempts to copy the disc, the SecuROM corrupts the executable file, rendering the disc ineffective.
Alpha Duplication : Quick TipDo you have a DVD video that you'd like to protect? Try ALPHA: Protect-R

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Silk Screen Disc Printing
A printing process that works by pushing inks through a fine mesh that has been stretched over a frame using a squeegee. When the process was initially developed, the mesh was made from silk, hence the the process is also know as silk screen.
Alpha Duplication : Quick TipHave you visited our Screen Printing page?

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Spot Colour
A colour that is printed using a single ink, rather than four-colour process. These can include metallic or fluorescent colours.

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TIFF
Tagged Image File Format, or TIFF, is a graphic format originally created by Adobe. TIFF files can either be compressed or uncompressed, thus having larger files than JPEGs. The TIFF compression model is based on Lossless compression so is desirable to work with among our Artwork Team.

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Twitter
Twitter is a free social networking and microblogging service that enables its users to send and read messages known as tweets. If you would like to keep up will all the events, news, promotions & other things we think is just plain cool, follow us on Twitter!

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USB
Universal Serial Bus (USB) is a standard-compliant interface that connects digital devices. USB has been introduced to computer peripherals such as keyboards, computer mice, music players, digital cameras, scanners, printers and external storage options (USB Flash Drives)
Alpha Duplication : Quick TipDid you know that Alpha Duplication can pre-load USB Flash Drives and print or engrave your logo right on the case? Learn more about USB Duplication and Printing.

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Vector
Vector graphics are made using mathematical equations to draw computer graphics and art using points, lines and curves. The image is easily editable because vector-graphic software can manipulate mathematical equations that make the image. Vector graphics are infinitely scalable without distortion or pixelation which isn't the case with rasterised graphics.

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Widescreen
See "16:9"

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WAV
WAV (or WAVE) is short for Waveform Audio Format, is an industry standard format for high-quality, uncompressed audio. Although Audio CDs don't use WAV files for tracks, this is the prefered audio format for CD creation.
Alpha Duplication : Quick TipDid you know that our on-site audio engineer can take your WAV files, add ISRC codes, and make a final master for duplication or replication? Just to make sure it still sounds good, we'll send you a copy of the final master for approval. Contact us now to find out how!

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